GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS
Adjectives and Adverbs: Using Participles as Adjectives
1. A participle is a verb form which can be used as an adjective to describe a noun. an interesting book an interested student 2. When the present participle (-ing from) is used, the noun it describes is (or was) the performer of the activity named by the participle. For example, in the sentence "The dog barks," the dog is the performer of the action (bark). It is a barking dog. 3. When the past participle (-ed, -en form) is used, the noun it describes is (or was) acted upon. For example, in The child is frightened by the dog, the child is the receiver of the action and is described as a frightened child. 4. The use of the present or past participle does not depend on the verb tense of the sentence, but rather on the performer/receiver situation.
5. The use of participles is not restricted to the subject of a sentence. In other words, the same statement can produce both a present (active) and a past (passive) participle. Examples:
6. Participles used as adjectives often come after the noun they modify, following a linking verb like Be, Become, or Seem Mathematics is interesting. My friends are interested in sports You seem comfused Problems often become frustrating. I am fascinated by my children. My children quickly became tired at school. School can be tiring for young children
[Adapted from: Alt & Kirkland, Steps to Composition Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar]
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