GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS
When we speak of nouns as being countable or uncountable, we mean that some things can be counted while others cannot. Countable nouns name individual items that can addup; there can be one or more of them. Other things cannot be counted; they are considered collective rather than individual items. In many cases this distinction is easy tonunderstand. We all recognize that we can count items like books, tables, eggs, or mountains. We can easily imagine one or more of such items. And most of us recognize that it is not possible to count other things like water, dust, air, or ice cream. These things cannot easily be separated into individual items. But many nouns are uncountable for less obvious reasons. Most concepts or abstract ideas like peace, happiness, wealth and knowledge are uncountable. So are many activities such as swimming, eating, and debauchery, and some conditions such as confusion, frustration, satisfaction, and certainty. These nouns are considered uncountable because they are not easily identified as single things--the idea of happiness can consist of many different things and can be different for different people--or because they refer to general activities rather than specific instances; eating refers to the activity in general, not any particular example. The names of most disciplines are also uncountable, for example, sociology, medicine, anthropology. Nouns ending in -ism are also usually uncountable, for example, feminism, optimism, patriotism. Some uncountable nouns like money, homework, work, and gossip are very confusing for learners of English because they seem to refer to particular items, yet they are treated as general. When we speak of work, we are not thinking of a particular job or activity--we include the idea of what anyone might do in any job that would be considered doing work. Jobs are countable items that are specific instances of the general idea of work. In the same way, homework is not the particular assignment or assignments a student does. It is the general idea of students doing assignments. When a student says, "I have to do my homework," he or she may mean one assignment or several assignments or parts of one or more assignments, so the student knows what particular activities are involved, but they are referred to as part of a generalized activity--my homework can be something different every day. ***Note: As you have perhaps noticed, individual activities like jobs and assignments--which are closely identified with uncountable nouns like work and homework--are countable. That means that although you can't say "I have lots of homeworks to do," you can say "I have lots of assignments." Money is an interesting example of an uncountable noun because, of course, lots of people love to count their money. Also confusing for many students are the numerous English nouns that have both a countable and an uncountable sense. Depending on the context, these nouns sometimes refer to a particular thing and at other times to a general idea. In some cases this is not difficult. For example, Death (in general) is inevitable. She missed work because there was a death in her family. However, many nouns are thought of as general more by custom than for any clear reason. Many food items fall into this category, e.g., chicken, cheese, and fruit. Thus, we see a chicken on a farm, but we eat chicken; we say that the tomato is a fruit, not a vegetable, but we like fruit on our cereal. **Note: individual servings of food items are usually countable, but not the food itself, e.g., pie a piece of pie bread a slice of bread gum a stick of gum Other nouns that can be either countable or uncountable include substances that things can be made of, like paper or glass. When you write an essay on paper, it becomes a paper. Other nouns in this category are words like wood and cloth, which refer to the material that may be made of many different varieties of tree or fabric. Thus, the material of an elm, an oak or a pine is all wood and linen, silk and cotton are all made into cloth. Some Common Uncountable Nouns accuracy darkness fun inferiority admiration economics furniture information advice efficieny garbage integration aggression electricity generosity intelligence air enjoyment gravity irritability assistance entertainment happiness isolation behavior estimation health junk boredom equipment heat justice bravery evidence help knowledge chemistry evolution homework laughter clothing excitement honesty leisure comprehension fame ignorance literature courage foolishness immigration luck luggage peace recreation stuff machinery permission relaxation superiority mail physics reliability survival math poetry research tolerance merchandise pollution sadness traffic money poverty safety transportation music pride scenery trouble news productivity shopping violence nonsense progress significance water oxygen propaganda slang wealth participation psychology snow weather pay rain status wisdom Some Nouns that can be either Countable or Uncountable abuse drama jail reading adulthood duck jealousy religion afternoon education language revision age environment law rock anger evening liberty science appearance exercise life school art fact love shock beauty faith lunch society beer fear man sorrow belief fiction marriage space breakfast film meat speech cheese fish metal spirit chicken flavor milk stone childhood food morning strength cloth freedom murder surprise college friendship nature teaching commitment fruit paper temptation competition glass passion theater concern government people theory crime hair personality time culture hatred philosophy tradition death history pleasure trouble desire home power truth dinner hope prejudice turkey disappointment ideology pressure understanding discrimination imagination prison weakness disease injustice punishment wine divorce innocence race writing There are, of course, many additional uncountable nouns in English. If you are unsure of any particular noun, you can use a dictionary for learners of English. For instance, both Longman's Dictionary of American English and Longman's Dictionary of Contemporary English use the symbols [C] and [U] to identify countable and uncountable nouns.
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